Working in hospitals, it is common to see that when one spouse passes away, the surviving spouse goes downhill rapidly and often dies shortly after. This isn’t always the case, but anyone who has worked in a hospital for a while can tell you that it’s not uncommon. This doesn’t always occur with spouses; it can occur with any close relationship. It can happen to someone whose beloved pet has passed away. Rarely, these people are literally dying of a broken heart.
Broken heart syndrome is a real condition, also known as stress cardiomyopathy. It is believed that about one percent of perceived heart attacks are attributable to broken heart syndrome. People with this condition develop rapid and severe heart muscle weakness after suffering intense emotional or physical stress.
Examples of events that could lead to the development of broken heart syndrome include:
- Emotional stressors
- Losing a job
- Getting divorced
- Public speaking
- Natural disasters
- Domestic abuse
- Extreme hostility/anger
- Good and surprising news, like winning the lottery
- Physical stressors
- Difficulty breathing (such as with asthma)
- Significant bleeding
When we are under physical or emotional stress, our bodies produce hormones, such as adrenaline. These hormones might lead to narrowing or a temporary constriction of the arteries that supply blood to the heart. The hormones might attach themselves to the cells of the heart and allow substantial amounts of calcium into the cells of the heart, leading to abnormal functioning. Adrenaline stuns the hearts of people who go on to develop cardiac myopathy.
It most often occurs in women over the age of 50, as it is believed that reduced levels of estrogen after menopause are a contributing factor. The majority of people with stress cardiomyopathy do not have severe blockages or clots in their arteries, like people who suffer heart attacks usually do. The heart cells do not die during stress cardiomyopathy, as they do when someone is suffering a heart attack.
Symptoms can include:
- Chest pain
- Difficult breathing
- Arm pain
- Low blood pressure
- Heart arrhythmias
These symptoms most often occur just minutes to hours after exposure to severe and unexpected stress. Individuals who develop stress cardiomyopathy are at risk of dying from congestive heart failure, low blood pressure, pulmonary edema, shock, and possibly life-threatening heart rhythm changes. This is uncommon, however, and most people recover rather quickly (in about a week). Some individuals may need to take angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or beta-blockers for a short period.
Long-term and untreated depression, anxiety, and chronic stress are both known to lead to the development of heart disease and spur heart attacks; over time, they reduce the ability of your coronary arteries to dilate or constrict. Negative emotions (such as hostility or grief) are known to be cardiotoxic; they cause the release of the same stress hormones that lead to broken heart syndrome after a single episode of shock. People with high levels of chronic stress appear to have the same risk of heart disease as those who smoke cigarettes. They also have a higher risk of heart attack than people with diabetes, hypertension, or high cholesterol.
Optimism reduces the risks of developing coronary heart disease or dying prematurely. Being satisfied with your job, family, sex life, and self is protective against heart disease. People who report being satisfied in these areas are less likely to have a heart attack in the next five years compared to unsatisfied people. Even taking the fact that content people tend to eat better, exercise more, and are less likely to smoke into account does not adequately explain this difference. What seems to be protective is feeling that your life has meaning and passion and being mindful.